Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary science including not only biology,
but also subjects like mathematics, physics, chemistry and engineering.
It is a blend of various technologies applied together to living cells
for production of a particular product or for improving upon it. Its use
and application ranges from fields like agriculture to industry (food,
pharmaceutical, chemical, bioproducts, textiles etc.), medicine,
nutrition, environmental conservation, animal sciences etc. making it one
of the fastest growing fields. The work is generally carried out in the
laboratories, as it is a scientific research oriented field.
Nature of Work
The nature of work of biotechnologists, being interdisciplinary, requires
working together of people from different fields such as biology, chemistry,
biochemistry, microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, genetics, engineering,
food science, agriculture etc. Some of the fields where biotechnology studies
are applicable are as follows.
- MEDICINE AND HEALTH CARE: Biotechnology's
application in this area has helped in the development of various medicines,
vaccines and diagnostics. The remarkable development work carried out by
biotechnologists in this field has led to improvement in the methods
of diagnosis, medicines and vaccinations for diseases which once
thought were incurable are no more a cause of worry, which has been a blessing
INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: Both
the government and the private sector employ biotechnologists. They conduct
research and development work, for increasing productivity, improving energy
production and conservation, minimizing pollution and industrial waste
etc. Biotechnologists also find opportunities at places involving activities
like chemical processes, genetic engineering, textile development, cosmetic
AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY: Indian
economy is very much dependent on agriculture and biotechnologists
have made major advancements in this area. Over the years, the agricultural
output has been improving, owing to the improvements in the quality of
seeds, insecticides and fertilizers. The latest technologies like micro
propagation and tissue culture has further helped agriculturists to overcome
problems like soil imbalances, genetic breeding and crop diseases. Biotechnologists
are also encouraging a shift from chemically prepared fertilizers and insecticides
to biochemicals and bioinsecticides.
Biotechnology's intervention in the area of animal
husbandry has improved animal breeding. Numerous kinds of genetically
engineered, high yielding animal breeds have come up which has increased
the output of dairy products as well as the meat products. India has in
fact, become the largest milk producer in the world
ENVIRONMENT: Environmental biotechnology
has become another area of extensive work due to the dangers brought about
by increasing levels of environmental pollution. A lot of hard work is
being done to protect our environment. In this field, the job of a biotechnologist
spans from checking industrial air pollution levels, treatment of industrial
waste to recycling of sewage sludge..
As the work is largely related to scientific research. It becomes quite
important to have a good academic background in science. Hard work and
high level of intelligence with a scientific bent of mind, determination,
perseverance, imagination, innovative attitude, ability to work for long
hours, originality, team spirit are some important essentials for becoming
a successful biotechnologist.
Candidates having background in science at the intermediate level can
- B.Tech in Biotechnology.
- P.G. courses available are
- M.Sc. Biotechnology
- M.Sc. (Agriculture) Biotechnology
- M.V.Sc. (Animal) Biotechnology
- M.Tech. Biotechnology, M.Sc./M.V.Sc. Veterinary Biotechnology
- M.Sc. (Marine) Biotechnology
- Medical Biotechnology
- M.Tech. in Biomedical Engineering/Biotechnology.
Depending upon the aptitude and necessity, more advanced courses such
- Ph.D. and Post-DoctoralResearch in Biotechnology can also be pursued.
Colleges, Institutions and Universities
Being an interdisciplinary subject with diverse areas of study, biotechnological
procedures apply themselves to a wide range of fields allowing students
from different backgrounds and interests to specialize in fields of their
choice. Some of the fields of specialization are
- Molecular Biology
- Animal Sciences
- Dairy Technology,
- Medicine,Life Sciences,
In recent times, biotechnology as a subject has grown rapidly. And as
far as employment is concerned, it has become the second fastest growing
sector after multi-media. Candidates with postgraduate degree in biotechnology
get absorbed in corporate and government sector, both. Qualified
biotechnologists are employed in leading indian business houses and MNCs
including pharmaceutical companies, chemical industries, bio-processing
industries, agriculture related industries and pollution control activities
of the major industries etc. They can even join government and corporate
run research and development organizations. On the whole making it a good
career opportunity for the bright young people.
Remuneration very much depends upon academic qualification, institute
or university from which the degree is attained and the level of
work experience. In the corporate sector, fresh IIT pass outs may get anything
in the range of Rs. 70,000 p.a. to Rs. 85,000 p.a. and fresh B.Sc./B. Tech.
graduates from other universities may get anything in the range of Rs.
50,000 p.a. to Rs. 70,000 p.a. Those workimg in the research institutes
can expect something around Rs. 60,000 p.a.